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zabbix数据库优化

MySQL版本推荐

MySQL5.7及以上版本,便捷的在线DDL方便zabbix的快速升级 链接数据库方式:zabbix的server、proxy、MySQL数据库尽量使用域名方式连接,方便进行故障切换。

zabbix数据库的授权

读写权限,用作zabbix自身访问:

grant all privileges on zabbix. to 'zabbix'@'1.1.1.1' identified by 'zabbix';

只读权限,用作二次开发只读zabbix数据库:

grant SELECT on zabbix. to 'zabbix_ro'@'1.1.1.1' identified by 'zabbixro';

MySQL配置文件需要调整的几个重要参数

innodb_log_files_in_group = 16
innodb_log_file_size = 1G
innodb_file_per_table = 1
max_allowed_packet = 64M
back_log = 1024
max-connections = 2000
sync_binlog = 0
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 0
binlog_format = row
expire_logs_days = 3

巧用SQL语句运维zabbix

使用SQL语句更新监控项或是触发器,提升变更效率,减少对数据库影响:

update zabbix.items set delay=5 where key='icmpping';
update zabbix.items t,zabbix.functions f set f.parameter='30' where f.itemid=t.itemid and t.key='agent.ping'

巧用读写分离和负载均衡

在做二次开发时,为避免对线上监控server端的影响,尽量使用独立的数据库从库读取数据(可能有大量通过API读取历史数据库等只读操作),需要一个只读的api接口,此时需要做zabbix数据库读写分离,可以在从库上过滤掉几张表,打开从库的写权限,这几张表主要用作用户登录的审计、session的记录,否则可能登录失败,:

replicate-wild-ignore-table =zabbix.auditlog
replicate-wild-ignore-table =zabbix.sessions
replicate-wild-ignore-table =zabbix.ids

同时zabbix web_api做负载均衡的时候,请使用IP hash的方式,因为涉及到session的问题。

zabbix升级注意事项

做zabbix的升级,其实是做zabbix数据库库表的变更,可能包含表结构的表更、索引的变更、数据的重组等操作,此时需要做一套新的数据库集群作为线上集群的存库存在,等数据同步完成,断掉同步,使用新的zabbix server程序连接新的数据库集群完成升级,升级完成后切换线上zabbix server、数据库域名到新的server和新的数据库上,这样能最低限度影响正常的监控。

数据库备份和数据清理

备份主要信息即可,监控数据和审计日志、events不需要备份,数据量太大。历史数据的删除:包含监控历史详情数据和趋势数据,使用分区的方式进行删除;另外events表也要定时的清理,使用主键进行清理,保留5天左右的即可,并需要定期的进行碎片整理,否则监控大屏显示会逐步变慢。

zabbix server历史数据和趋势数据分区

分区sql脚本下载地址:https://www.zabbix.org/wiki/Docs/howto/mysql_partition 为历史表分区做准备。zabbix2.0/3.0 only,3.2以上的版本不需要执行

ALTER TABLE history_text DROP PRIMARY KEY, ADD INDEX (id), DROP INDEX history_text_2, ADD INDEX history_text_2 (itemid, id);
ALTER TABLE history_log DROP PRIMARY KEY, ADD INDEX (id), DROP INDEX history_log_2, ADD INDEX history_log_2 (itemid, id);

在server的配置文件中设置HousekeepingFrequency=0,禁用zabbix自带的清理历史数据任务 设置历史监控数据表中的时间字段为索引,方便后续按照时间取值二次开发

ALTER TABLE history ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_log ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_str ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_str_sync ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_sync ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_text ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_uint ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE history_uint_sync ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE trends ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE trends_uint ADD INDEX clock (clock);
ALTER TABLE EVENTS ADD INDEX objectid (objectid,VALUE,clock);

如果存在这五个存储过程则删除

DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_create;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_drop;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_maintenance;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_maintenance_all;
DROP PROCEDURE IF EXISTS partition_verify;

第一次执行存储过程

CALL partition_maintenance_all('zabbix');

inser to crontab 每天执行一次存储过程,生成新的分区和删除老的分区
#!/bin/sh
/xxxxx/mysql/bin/mysql -uzabbix -pzabbixmonitor --socket=/xxxx/mysql/tmp/mysql.sock --database=zabbix -e "CALL partition_maintenance_all('zabbix');"
存储过程详情如下:

/ partition_create /

DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_create(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), PARTITIONNAME VARCHAR(64), CLOCK INT)
BEGIN
/
SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes
TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete
PARTITIONNAME = The name of the partition to create
/
/
Verify that the partition does not already exist
/

DECLARE RETROWS INT;
SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS
FROM information_schema.partitions
WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND partition_description >= CLOCK;

IF RETROWS = 0 THEN
/*
1. Print a message indicating that a partition was created.
2. Create the SQL to create the partition.
3. Execute the SQL from #2.
*/
SELECT CONCAT( "partition_create(", SCHEMANAME, ",", TABLENAME, ",", PARTITIONNAME, ",", CLOCK, ")" ) AS msg;
SET @SQL = CONCAT( 'ALTER TABLE ', SCHEMANAME, '.', TABLENAME, ' ADD PARTITION (PARTITION ', PARTITIONNAME, ' VALUES LESS THAN (', CLOCK, '));' );
PREPARE STMT FROM @SQL;
EXECUTE STMT;
DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
END IF;

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_drop /

DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_drop(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE BIGINT)
BEGIN
/
SCHEMANAME = The DB schema in which to make changes
TABLENAME = The table with partitions to potentially delete
DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE = Delete any partitions with names that are dates older than this one (yyyy-mm-dd)
/
DECLARE done INT DEFAULT FALSE;
DECLARE drop_part_name VARCHAR(16);

/*
Get a list of all the partitions that are older than the date
in DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE.  All partitions are prefixed with
a "p", so use SUBSTRING TO get rid of that character.
*/
DECLARE myCursor CURSOR FOR
SELECT partition_name
FROM information_schema.partitions
WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND CAST(SUBSTRING(partition_name FROM 2) AS UNSIGNED) < DELETE_BELOW_PARTITION_DATE;
DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR NOT FOUND SET done = TRUE;

/*
Create the basics for when we need to drop the partition.  Also, create
@drop_partitions to hold a comma-delimited list of all partitions that
should be deleted.
*/
SET @alter_header = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " DROP PARTITION ");
SET @drop_partitions = "";

/*
Start looping through all the partitions that are too old.
*/
OPEN myCursor;
read_loop: LOOP
FETCH myCursor INTO drop_part_name;
IF done THEN
LEAVE read_loop;
END IF;
SET @drop_partitions = IF(@drop_partitions = "", drop_part_name, CONCAT(@drop_partitions, ",", drop_part_name));
END LOOP;
IF @drop_partitions != "" THEN
/*
1. Build the SQL to drop all the necessary partitions.
2. Run the SQL to drop the partitions.
3. Print out the table partitions that were deleted.
*/
SET @full_sql = CONCAT(@alter_header, @drop_partitions, ";");
PREPARE STMT FROM @full_sql;
EXECUTE STMT;
DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;

SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, @drop_partitions AS `partitions_deleted`;
ELSE
/*
No partitions are being deleted, so print out "N/A" (Not applicable) to indicate
that no changes were made.
*/
SELECT CONCAT(SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME) AS `table`, "N/A" AS `partitions_deleted`;
END IF;

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_maintenance /
DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32), TABLE_NAME VARCHAR(32), KEEP_DATA_DAYS INT, HOURLY_INTERVAL INT, CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS INT)
BEGIN
DECLARE OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE VARCHAR(16);
DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
DECLARE LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP INT;
DECLARE CUR_TIME INT;

CALL partition_verify(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, HOURLY_INTERVAL);
SET CUR_TIME = UNIX_TIMESTAMP(DATE_FORMAT(NOW(), '%Y-%m-%d 00:00:00'));

SET @__interval = 1;
create_loop: LOOP
IF @__interval > CREATE_NEXT_INTERVALS THEN
LEAVE create_loop;
END IF;

SET LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP = CUR_TIME + (HOURLY_INTERVAL * @__interval * 3600);
SET PARTITION_NAME = FROM_UNIXTIME(CUR_TIME + HOURLY_INTERVAL * (@__interval - 1) * 3600, 'p%Y%m%d%H00');
CALL partition_create(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, PARTITION_NAME, LESS_THAN_TIMESTAMP);
SET @__interval=@__interval+1;
END LOOP;

SET OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE=DATE_FORMAT(DATE_SUB(NOW(), INTERVAL KEEP_DATA_DAYS DAY), '%Y%m%d0000');
CALL partition_drop(SCHEMA_NAME, TABLE_NAME, OLDER_THAN_PARTITION_DATE);

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_verify /
DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_verify(SCHEMANAME VARCHAR(64), TABLENAME VARCHAR(64), HOURLYINTERVAL INT(11))
BEGIN
DECLARE PARTITION_NAME VARCHAR(16);
DECLARE RETROWS INT(11);
DECLARE FUTURE_TIMESTAMP TIMESTAMP;

/*
* Check if any partitions exist for the given SCHEMANAME.TABLENAME.
*/
SELECT COUNT(1) INTO RETROWS
FROM information_schema.partitions
WHERE table_schema = SCHEMANAME AND TABLE_NAME = TABLENAME AND partition_name IS NULL;

/*
* If partitions do not exist, go ahead and partition the table
*/
IF RETROWS = 1 THEN
/*
* Take the current date at 00:00:00 and add HOURLYINTERVAL to it.  This is the timestamp below which we will store values.
* We begin partitioning based on the beginning of a day.  This is because we don't want to generate a random partition
* that won't necessarily fall in line with the desired partition naming (ie: if the hour interval is 24 hours, we could
* end up creating a partition now named "p201403270600" when all other partitions will be like "p201403280000").
*/
SET FUTURE_TIMESTAMP = TIMESTAMPADD(HOUR, HOURLYINTERVAL, CONCAT(CURDATE(), " ", '00:00:00'));
SET PARTITION_NAME = DATE_FORMAT(CURDATE(), 'p%Y%m%d%H00');

-- Create the partitioning query
SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT("ALTER TABLE ", SCHEMANAME, ".", TABLENAME, " PARTITION BY RANGE(`clock`)");
SET @__PARTITION_SQL = CONCAT(@__PARTITION_SQL, "(PARTITION ", PARTITION_NAME, " VALUES LESS THAN (", UNIX_TIMESTAMP(FUTURE_TIMESTAMP), "));");

-- Run the partitioning query
PREPARE STMT FROM @__PARTITION_SQL;
EXECUTE STMT;
DEALLOCATE PREPARE STMT;
END IF;

END$$
DELIMITER ;

/ partition_maintenance_all /
DELIMITER $$
CREATE PROCEDURE partition_maintenance_all(SCHEMA_NAME VARCHAR(32))
BEGIN
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_log', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_str', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_text', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'history_uint', 28, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends', 730, 24, 14);
CALL partition_maintenance(SCHEMA_NAME, 'trends_uint', 730, 24, 14);
END$$
DELIMITER ;

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